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Class 7 Hindi

Class 7 Biology

Page no-13  AT LENGTH

A. Explain the following terms.

1.Parenchyma-parenchyma is the most common living plant tissue. They have more intracellular spaces between them and they consist of thin cell walls and have large vacuoles. The main function of parenchyma is to store food material. The intercellular air spaces between them help in gaseous exchange.

2.cartilage-cartilage is a flexible connective tissue found in many parts of the animal body. This tissue is highly elastic and resistance to crushing. It is present between the bones to reduce the friction and to relieve the bones of shock. It is mainly found at the end of bones, in the windpipe, tip of the nose, and the external ear. 

3.Fibrous tissue-  fibrous tissues are the common connective tissue of the body which are composed of yellow or white parallel elastic and collagen fibers.

4. Nervous tissue- Nervous tissue is found in the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. It is responsible for coordinating and controlling many body activities. The cells in nervous tissue that generate and conduct impulses are called neurons or nerve cells. These cells have three principal parts: -  The dendrites, The cell body and One axon. 

B. Difference between the following.

1. Meristematic tissue and permanent tissues

              Meristematic tissue                                                            Permanent tissue                                                                           

1.Meristematic tissues have capacity to divide.          1.  They do not divide further

2.Meristematic tissue have thin cellulose wall.            2. Permanent tissue has thick cellulose wall.

3.Meristematic tissues are responsible for the            3. Permanent tissue is responsible for various growths.  

Primary and secondary growth of the plants.               

4.Meristematic tissue has dense cytoplasm with        4. Permanent tissue has thin cytoplasm with normal 

Prominent nucleus.                                                            Nucleus.

5.Meristematic tissue do not have intercellular          5. Permanent tissue has large intercellular space. 


 2.Apical meristem and lateral meristem

               Apical meristem                                                                                       Lateral meristem

1.Apical meristem is the meristematic tissue in the            1. Lateral meristem is the meristematic tissue in the                                  

Apex of stem and roots.                                                              Sides of stems and roots.                                                                            

2.This tissue allows the plant to develop special                2. This tissue allows the plant to grow tall by making  

Structures like flowers and leaves.                                         It stronger.

3 This. tissue increase the length of the plant at the             3. This tissue increases the diameter of stem and  

at the apex of stem and roots.                       Roots.

4. This tissue give rise to the epidermis, xylem, phloem give rise to wood, inner bark and outer bark.

And ground tissue.

3. Simple permanent tissue and complex permanent tissue.

          Simple permanent tissue                                                Complex permanent tissue

1.It is made up of only one type of cells.                               1. It is made up of more than one type of cells.                                                                                                                                        

2.All cells of this tissue work as individual units to                 2. Cells of this tissue work together as one single 

Perform a particular function.                                                   Unit to bring about a particular function.                                                                                                                                        

3.examples-parenchyma, collenchyma, and                            3. examples-xylem and phloem tissues.                      Sclerenchyma 


4.Voluntary muscles and involuntary muscles.

        Voluntary muscle                                                 involuntary muscle


2.Their cells have many nuclei and striations.                     2.Their cells have only one nuclei. 

3.These muscles are long, cylindrical, and                        3. These muscles are small and spindled shaped  Unbranched shaped    muscles.                                                                              Muscles.


5. Bone and cartilage.

         Bones                                                                       cartilage

1, Bones are the hard, inelastic and tough organ           1. Cartilage is a soft, elastic and flexible connective 

That forms part of the vertebral skeleton.                        Tissue that protects the born from rubbing against 

                                                                                                      Each other

2.Bones cells are known as osteocytes.                            2.Cartilage cells are known as chondrocytes.

3.The bones have a rich blood supply.                                3.lack of blood supply except in few cartilages.                                                                                                                                          


6.Xylem and phloem.

           Xylem                                                                     phloem

1.It consists mostly dead cells.                                 consists mostly of living cells.

2.It transports water and minerals from the roots          2. It transports food prepared by the leaves to various   To all other parts in upward direction.                             Parts of plants in both directions.

3.It is located more on the inside of the vascular         3. It is located on the outer side of the vascular bundle.



Chapter 1: Integers

Chapter 2: Fractions

Chapter 7: Ratio, Proportion and Unitary Method

Chapter 12:   Algebraic Expressions

Chapter 15: Lines and angles

Chapter 23: Probability

Tables 1 – 20

        Class 7  Chemistry

Class 7 Punjabi

Class 7 Hindi


Chapter 4: The Turkish Invasions

I.  Fill in the blanks.

1.     Abbasid        

2. Islam        

3. Mahmud of Ghazni      

4. 17     

5. Somnath , Gujarat      

6. Prithviraj Chauhan , Tarain, 1192

II.   Match the following.

1.     C          2. D     3. A     4. B

III.   Choose the correct answer.

1.     Mahmud of Ghazni            2. Firdausi     3. Kannauj    4. Five            5. Qutbuddin Aibak

IV.              Answer the following questions briefly.

1.     After the death of Harshavardhana , India was ruled by feudal lords who were always at war with each other. This offered the perfect opportunity for the Turks to enter India.

2.     Muhammad  bin Qasim  was born around 695 AD. He belonged to Saqqafi tribe. He was an Umayyad general who conquered Sindh and Multan regions along the Indus River.

3.     Mahmud Ghazni was one of the most outstanding Turkish soldiers. He was the first to carry out a series of Turkish invasions in India. He came to India to accumulate the vast amount of wealth that existed in India and to spread Islam. He was a patron of art, architecture and literature.

4.     Muhammad Ghori was the sultan of the Ghurid Empire. He was an ambitious ruler. He came to India to invade its enormous wealth and to spread Islam. He wanted to extend his empire and acquire more power.

5.     In the first battle of Tarain in  1191, Muhammad Ghori fought against the Rajput king, Prithviraj Chauhan but he was defeated in the battle. After one year, in 1192, Ghori invaded India once again  and  had won the battle. The two battles of Tarain were fought with the aim to conquer the whole of India.

V.                 Answer in detail.

1.      Mahmud of Ghazni raided India for the first time in 1000 CE and after that he invaded India 17 times.

·        During his first invasion, Mahmud captured a few forts and temple towns.

·        He had also plundered the north Indian temples of Mathura and Kannauj.

·        The invasion of Somnath temple in Gujarat in 1025 CE yielded immense wealth for Mahmud Ghazni.

·        Apart from India, he also carried on his expeditions in Lahore , Afghanistan and parts of Pakistan.

2.     Though Mahmud of Ghazni attacked India many times for capturing its wealth, he was a patron of art, architecture and literature. In his capital city , Ghazni, he built many mosques, libraries, a museum and a university. He enjoyed the company of great scholars  and poets. Great scholars like Al Beruni and poet Firdausi who wrote the great epic’ Shah Namah’  received his patronage.

3.     In the first battle of Tarain in  1191, Muhammad Ghori fought against the Rajput king, Prithviraj Chauhan but he was defeated in the battle. After one year, in 1192, Ghori invaded India once again and had won the battle. The two battles of Tarain were fought with the aim to conquer the whole of India.  In the second battle, Prithviraj Chauhan was killed and Muhammad Ghori captured his territories of Delhi and Ajmer. 

4.     The Turkish invasions brought significant changes in India in the fields of politics, military , economy and culture.

·        It paved  the way for the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate in India for the next five centuries.

·        Intermingling of cultures and exchange of religious thoughts were the outcomes of these invasions.

·        Indo – Islamic contacts resulted in the setting up of a composite culture.

·        These invasions also opened the routes for migration of people to the subcontinent in the form of soldiers, traders and workers.

5.     After the death of Harshavardhana in 647 CE, the kingdom ruled by him disintegrated into smaller fragments. These fragmented areas were ruled by feudal lords who were always at war with each other. This offered the perfect opportunity for foreign invaders to raid and invade the country. In India, the infighting among the Rajputs made it easy for the Turks to attack.

6.      Muhammad Ghori was aware of the fact that India was politically and militarily weak. Hence he diverted all his attention and power in conquering India. He led several invasions against India and was successful in most. In 1175  he captured Multan, in 1178  Gujarat, by 1186 he had captured Peshawar and Punjab, in 1192  he invaded Delhi and Ajmer and then Kannauj.  He had built an empire in the true sense so historians believe that Muhammad Ghori was the actual founder of Turkish Empire in India.


Lesson : 3 The Great Smog of 1952

Start Here

1.     Yes, I have read a report of recent smog problem of Delhi and neighbouring states including Punjab.

2.     Yes, people could use public transport or electric vehicles.

3.     Large cities can reduce the usage of cars, plant more trees, decrease the number of construction projects and put an end to burning of stubble  to improve air quality.

Intext questions

1.     Why do you think the London Underground train system was not affected?

The entire transportation system of London remained paralyzed for five days because of the dense fog.  The London Underground train system was not affected as it was fully covered and fog did not enter into the tunnel.

2.     What do you think we can do to support the government’s effort at such times?

In such vulnerable situations, we should extend support to the Government by strictly following the guidelines and instructions issued by the Government.  We should understand that the rules are meant for the welfare of the society.

(Solve Comprehension exercises 1 an 2 after reading lesson many times.)

Reference to context

 3. a. Big Ben, St Paul’s Cathedral and London Bridge are the three city landmarks that the author mentions.

 b. “Nonetheless, Londoners went about their business with typical British reserve, ignoring the foul air as much as possible.”

c. Fog is a natural phenomenon, caused by condensation of cold air, whereas smog is the product of fog mixing with smoke.

4. a. Visibility was very low owing to the Great Smog. As a result, it was too dfficult to drive simply because one would have to drive really slow to avoid obstacles and other vehicles. 

b. They abandoned their cars and went indoors. 

c. One couldn’t hear them coughing over the din of car horns and doors slamming. Visibility was at a record low and the light from the traffic controllers’ torches seemed to me like disembodied beams. They were so far away that I couldn’t see the people showing the way. The sounds were overwhelming. Loud voices, enraged at their own helplessness, would attempt to scream only to break off in choking sobs. Once I managed to walk onto the footpath, I found my feet stuck in the sludge. I grabbed onto an abandoned car to keep from stumbling face-first into pitch black.

Reflect and answer

5.  It wasn’t until much later that the deadly impact of the smog was truly realized because the detrimental effect of the smog was at first immediate, before lingering well into 1953.

6.  The British Government conducted an investigation that led Parliament to pass the Clean Air Act of 1956 that restricted the burning of coal in urban areas and authorized local councils to set up smoke-free zones. Homeowners received grants to convert from coal to alternative heating systems. This prevented future smog emergencies from reaching the scale of The Big Smoke of 1952.

7. a. Ban the use of plastic within school premises.

b. Organize a tree-plantation drive.

c. Teach students about water conservation.

d. Make a pledge to conserve less electricity.

e. Teach sustainable methods of garbage disposal.

The Big Picture

1.     New Delhi 2. Mumbai, Hyderabad, Pune 3. Bangalore

Work with Words

1. a. seem b. mourning c. stationary d. capital

2. a. soot b. foul c. air d. weather

Class VII Punjabi



Chapter 1 : More Peripherals

Note: Read lesson very carefully many times and solve : Activity, Multiple choice questions, True / False, Fill in the blanks and all abbreviations.

Answer the following

1.     Write about Biometric devices

Biometric devices are those used to identify and verify living persons using their physical characteristics.  These devices can provide automated methods for recognizing iris, hand geometry, fingerprint, face, voice etc.  The identification process will take place, only if the physical characteristics of the person to be verified is already stored in the system.

2.     Write about MICR

MICR stands for Magnetic Ink Character Reader.  It reads the special characters printed in a standard font with a special ink containing iron oxide.  These are widely used in banks to identify cheques and drafts.  In a cheque the cheque number, branch code etc. are printed using the MICR font.  When the cheque is passed through the MICR device the correct contents of the transactions are interpreted and verified.

(Note: Ask your parents to show a cheque and see how the cheque number is printed at the bottom of it.)

See the source image


3.     Write about Smart Cards

A smart card is a physical card that has an integrated chip that acts as a security token.  Smart card microprocessors or memory chips exchange data with card readers and other systems over a serial interface. A smart card communicates with readers either via direct physical contact or using a short-range wireless connectivity standard such as RFID or NFC (Near Field Communication). The card reader then passes data from the smart card to its intended destination, connected to the smart card reader over a network connection.

(Note: All the new debit/credit cards Driving licences / RC etc. come with embedded chip.  Ask your parents to show)

Image result for smart cards


4.     What is a Voice Recognition System?

Voice recognition system  is also known as speech recognition system. voice recognition is a computer software or hardware device with the ability to decode the human voice. Voice recognition is commonly used to operate a device, perform commands, or write without having to use a keyboard, mouse, or  any buttons.  It allows the user to use his/her voice as input.

Voice Recognition System Wholesale Suppliers in Jaipur Rajasthan ...


5.     What is the advantage of RFID over the Bar Code Reader?

Though RFID and barcodes both carry information about products there are some advantages of using RFID over Bar Code technologies:

  • Barcode readers require a direct line of sight to the printed barcode; RFID readers do not require a direct line of sight.
  • RFID tags can be read at much greater distances; an RFID reader can pull information from a tag at distances up to 300 feet whereas the range to read a barcode is much less, typically not more than fifteen feet.
  • RFID readers can  read, RFID tags much faster; read rates of forty or more tags per second are possible whereas reading barcodes is much more time-consuming; due to the fact that a direct line of sight is required.
  • Barcodes have no read/write capability; that is, you cannot add to the information written on a printed barcode. RFID tags, however, can be read/write devices; the RFID reader can communicate with the tag, and alter as much of the information as the tag design will allow.

RFID System. 

Extra questions

1.    Write a note on LCD projectors.

An LCD projector is a type of video projector for displaying video, images or computer data on a screen or other flat surface.  Normally corporate presentations, multimedia educational programmes that are presented to a large audience require a LCD projector.

2.    What is Radio Frequency Identification?

Radio Frequency Identification is a technology that uses electronic tags placed on objects, people, or animals to relay identifying information to an electronic reader by means of radio waves. 

3.    What do you know about Magnetic Stripe Card / Reader?

Data such as name, signature, address etc. are permanently stored on black magnetic stripe a Magnetic Stripe card.  To read data, the card is swiped through a magnetic card unit which converts the information into computer readable characters for further processing.

Magnetic Stripe Reading


4.    Write a note on OMR

OMR stands for Optical Mark Reader.  It detects the presence and absence of a mark in a specific position.  These marks are generally made in specific boxes / circles with an HB pencil or ballpoint pen. An Optical Mark Reader throws a light beam onto the document on which marks have been made, and analyses the reflected light to know the mark position.  It is used in the marking of test papers where answers are marked with pencil or pen.


5.    What do you mean by Peripheral Devices?

Peripheral devices are those which are attached to a computer to enhance its capabilities.  Printers, scanners, microphones, speakers, cameras, various types of readers etc. are some of the commonly used peripheral devices.





Lesson 2 : The Three Questions

Intext questions

1.     Why do you think people answered the questions differently?

People gave different answers based on their capacity and wisdom.  We can see each one was able to justify  their answers in their own way.   With this we can understand that for each and every problem, there can be different solutions.

2.     What does the fact that the king helped the hermit tell you about the king?

We learn about the king that he was a man of compassion and wisdom.  His act of kindness shows us the basic quality of a good ruler.

3.     Why do you think the author mentions how peacefully the king slept?

The author underlines the fact that hardworking people get sound sleep.  The king was so tired from his walk and from the work he had done on the day and he fell asleep so soundly.

4.     Do you think that the king’s questions had been answered ?  In what way?

Yes. The king’s questions were answered in a realistic way with his own experience.  The right time to begin everything is right now, the right people to listen to is the one who is with you right now and the most important thing to do is do good.


 1. i. h. A king wanted the answer to three questions that he considered important.

ii. c. Different people gave different answers but the king was not satisfied with their answers.

iii. f. The king decided to go to a wise hermit to seek his answers.

iv. j. On reaching the hermit’s hut, the king saw that the hermit was digging the ground outside the hut; the king offered to help him.

v. d. A bearded man came running to the hut; he was bleeding a lot.

vi. i. The king helped the man and saved his life. 

vii. b. The next morning, the bearded man told the king that he wished to kill the king but had been wounded by the king’s bodyguards.

viii. e. The man had been trying to take revenge from the king because the king had killed his brother and seized his property.

ix. a. The compassionate act of the king resulted in peace being made between the two men.

x. g. The king went back to the hermit for his answers; the hermit told him that all his questions had been answered.


2. a. What is the right time to begin everything? Who were the right people to listen to? What was the most important thing to do?  were the three questions that the king wanted answers to.

b. The king went to the hermit who lived in the woods to seek answers to his questions; he had been informed that the hermit could provide sound guidance. He wore simple clothes and left his horse and bodyguard before visiting the hermit because the hermit received none but common folk.

c. The king helped the bearded man and the hermit because it was the right thing to do.

Reference to context

3. a. The speaker is the hermit, who had been listening to the king ask him questions. The listener, the king, was questioning the hermit after digging two beds of soil. 

b. The hermit made this offer because earlier, the king had begun to help the hermit dig. The king ignored his offer, continued to dig  and asked answers for his three questions again.

c. This interaction is important because it is then that the wounded, bearded man came running up to them.

4. a. The speaker is so grateful because the king saved his life. 

b. The listener forgives the speaker because the king is glad to have made peace with his enemy.

c. The king then promises to help the wounded man in every way. This shows that the king is compassionate, wise and just.

Reflect and answer

5. a. The king had three questions that he needed answered and he did everything he could to have his answers.

b. The king helped the hermit dig and later, chose to forgive the bearded man.

c. The hermit was aware that only the king could answer his own questions and patiently waited for the king to make his own choices. 

d. The bearded man had planned to ambush the king seeking revenge for his family.

6.  The king had known the right thing to do when the injured man came running to him. He had known it was the right time for action, otherwise the man would die. He had also known whom to trust, in that moment.

7.  Had the king not helped the wounded man, he might have died hating the king who, in turn, would miss the answers he was seeking.

8.  I Agree with it.  The past in unchangeable and the future unseen. The present is the only point in time that we have any control over.

Work with Words :

2. authorization; allow

3. challenge; competition

4. fight; row

5. return to (verb); curriculum vitae



OXFORD ROOTS – CLASS – 7(Lesson – 1)

Intext questions

1.     To them, all men are subjects.  What do you think about this statement?

This statement means that for a ruler all are his subjects irrespective of their power and positions.

2.     Why does the little prince seek permission from the king?

As the planet was tiny, the little prince could not see anything except the king.  So he asked permission to ask a question over what does the king rule.

3.     Do you think the king’s rule was both absolute and universal?

In the given context the king’s rule was absolute and universal because all planets and stars perform their duties appropriately.

4.     Would you have accepted the king’s offer to stay on the asteroid?  Why/Why not?

If I were in place of the little prince, I would not have accepted the offer of the King to stay on the planet because there is nothing except the king on that planet.

5.     At this point, who do you think was wiser, the little prince or the king?

I think the king was wiser as he made the prince his Ambassador as the little prince rejected the offer to stay there.  An ambassador is a representative sent to a foreign country to represent there his country.

[Find and fill correct answers for Ex.1 &2 after making thorough reading of the lesson]

Reference to context

3. a. The ‘he’ is the little prince in the given sentence.

b. The little prince decided to visit the asteroids in order to increase his knowledge. 

c. The king called the little prince his subject.

4. a. The little prince had requested that the king order the sun to set.

b. The little prince had asked this favour of the king because he had felt a bit sad thinking about the sunsets in his little home planet, that he had forsaken. 

c. The king argued that accepted authority rests first of all on reason and that his orders must be reasonable for him to expect obedience. The sun has a duty as well, he said. One must require from each one the duty which each one can perform.

Reflect and answer

5. “ Approach, so that I may see you better,” said the king, who felt consumingly proud of being at last a king over somebody.  “ I order you to yawn. It is years since I have seen anyone yawning. Yawns, to me, are objects of curiosity....”

6. The little prince was surprised by the king’s greeting because he did not expect the king to recognize him.  He did not know how the world is simplified for kings. To them, all men are subjects.

7. The king stated that accepted authority rests first of all on reason and that his orders must be reasonable for him to expect obedience. He could not, for instance, ask a general to change himself into a sea bird. He believed that one must require from each one the duty that each one can perform.

8.  The role of the old rat was to serve as the king’s subject and make noises at night.



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