Study Materials  for Nursery  to VIII
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LESSON 4. Dusk

Start Here

1. (Sample answer)  People ask others for help because they are unable to do certain things themselves or because they need guidance or support to do it. So they ask for help from someone who is more suitable to do that particular job or may have some expertise. People might hesitate to tell the truth while asking for help to avoid feeling embarrassed in front of others.

2. (Sample answer)  The girl on the right seems happy riding her bicycle. It could be because of the nice and sunny weather where birds are chirping and all the plants and trees look green and fresh. This picture is bright and colourful, and the girl is smiling and therefore it looks happy. The boy on the left seems gloomy due to the rainy weather as he cannot step out and is forced to stay inside his house and get bored. In this picture the use of dull colours, lots of blue tones, the boy’s posture and facial expression and the drooping plants tell us that the picture is depicting sadness.


1. Match the following

a. iv        b. i          c. v         d. iii        e. ii

2. Fill in the blanks

a. dusk, lost        b. subtle, heartsore, disillusioned    c. forlorn       d. young, well-dressed, mien

3.  vanished slowly into the shadows: people who are secretive and mysterious jostling: people in a great hurry in a crowd  strolled: people who are walking for pleasure  flitted away: people who are nimble-footed and can move away rapidly and lightly   fled headlong: people who are running away because of something

Reference to the context

4. a. He is a well-dressed young man sitting next to the narrator on the same bench. He is speaking to the narrator of the story.

b. He is not in a good temper because he has forgotten the name of the hotel he is staying at, the street of the hotel, and has no money left with him after buying the soap and getting himself a drink.

c. He made it known to others by unburdening himself of an angry and very audible expletive as he sat on the bench.

5. a. The subject here is the truthfulness of the story as told by the young man. 

b. The young man initially thought that Gortsby didn’t believe his story after he failed to produce the soap. So when Gortsby came back with a bar of soap, the young man quickly took the money and the soap to avoid further suspicion.

c. This act tells us that the young man was good at making stories, but not without raising some suspicions. Leaving quickly after being caught lying shows he wasn’t good at convincing and preferred escaping than to face the situation.

Reflect and answer

6. The author is trying to create a sad and depressing mood in the first two paragraphs. Describing the time of dusk as the hour of the defeated sums it up clearly. Some of the words/phrases to confirm this are: 1. there was a wide emptiness over road and sidewalk, 2. many unconsidered figures moving silently, 3. the hour of the defeated, 4. who had fought and lost, 5. when their shabby clothes and bowed shoulders and unhappy eyes might pass unnoticed.

7. The young man seems to be a habitual liar who lies to people to make money. He also seems to be a good storyteller but not good enough to prove his story when doubts are raised. The habit of leaving suddenly after someone objecting to his claims makes it difficult to believe him. All of his traits appear negative to me. Most of these things can be confirmed from these lines: “To lose a hotel and a cake of soap on one afternoon suggests wilful carelessness,” said Gortsby, but the young man scarcely waited to hear the end of the remark. He flitted away down the path, his head held high, with an air of somewhat jaded jauntiness.

8. These lines suggest that Mr Gortsby was correct about the young man being a liar in the first instance as the soap did not belong to the young man. It belonged to the old man who was sitting on the bench before him. They are important to the story as Mr Gortsby trusted the young man to return his money because of the soap he found. But when he realised that the bar of soap belonged to the old man, he realised his first impression of the young man was correct.

9.  (you may write the way you think ) I will go and ask her if she is alright and if I can do something to make her feel better.

The Big Picture 

1.  appealed: to make a formal request to a court or to somebody in authority for a judgment or a decision to be changed

2.  testimony: a formal written or spoken statement saying what you know to be true, usually in court

3.  verdict: a decision that is made by a jury in court, stating if somebody is considered guilty of a crime or not

4.  trial: a formal examination of evidence in court by a judge and often a jury

5.  witness: a person who has seen or heard something happen and describes it in court as evidence in a trial

6.  jury: a group of members of the public who listen to the facts of a case in a court and decide whether or not somebody is guilty of a crime

7.  acquittal: an official decision in court that a person is not guilty of a crime

8.  public prosecutor: a lawyer who works for the government and tries to prove people guilty in court

9.  defence attorney: a lawyer specialising in the defence of individuals and companies charged with criminal activity

10.  the bar: a partition in a court room beyond which most people may not pass and at which an accused person stands

11.  affidavit: a written statement that you swear is true, and that can be used as evidence in court.

Work with Words

1. once in a blue moon                   2. dime a dozen      3. blessing in disguise    4. under the weather

5. Break a leg     6. cup of tea       7. call it a night

 Learn Grammar 

1. a. They walked up the steep mountain path.

b. The cat chased the bird in the weedy overgrown garden.

 c. The girl with the long black hair is my cousin. 

d. She arrived in the nick of time.

e. Mother gave the children waffles instead of the usual boiled eggs today.

f. His house is built near a fast-flowing river.

2. a. on my own                b. out of danger                c. in a whisper   d. in pencil          e. in public

f. in honour of                   g. in charge of

3. a. He walked over the stone bridge in order to cross the river.

b. Radha’s favourite book is in the bookstand by the rocking chair.

c. His dogs are always playing inside the large barn.

d. The ship nearly sank as it sailed across the stormy ocean.

e. There is a beautiful dress on display in the storefront window.

f. I keep my sweets safe from my younger brother by keeping them on the highest shelf.


1.  The soaps’/soaps/soap’s absence gave away the young man’s trick.

2.  You can only see silhouettes of people in the line of street lamps’/lamp’s/lamps’s glow.

3.  The cowboys’/cowboy’s/cowboys’s spurs jingled as he strutted in to the saloon.

4.  Come back in an hour, all the lawyer’s/ lawyers’/lawyers’s offices are closed for lunch.

5.  In two week’s/weeks’s/weeks’ time, he will have forgotten all about this conversation.

6.  My bosses’s/bosses’/boss’s brand new suit is made of a velvety, purple material.

7.  The two actress’s/actresses’/actresses’s dresses were sold at the charity auction.

Learn to Write

1. Clothes for men, women and kids.                       2. SUMMER BONANZA

3.  All products at half price; gifts on purchases of Rs 2000 and above.

4.  Clothes are available for men, women and kids; offer is available till 30th June at all store branches

5.  The only detail provided about the point of contact is the store’s name.

6.  MAKE THE WORLD DRESS BETTER  WE NEED A PASSIONATE ASSISTANT MANAGER  If you are good at selling things and like managing responsibilities, we are looking for you! Salary is not an issue for deserving candidates.  Send your resume to jobs@dresstoimpress. com




Chapter  2: Exponents and Powers

Chapter 3: Squares and Square Roots

Chapter 7: Percentage

Chapter 12: Fundamental Operations on Algebraic Expressions

Chapter  16: Understanding Quadrilaterals

chapter 23: Probability


Chapter 1: Transition to the modern era

I.                     Fill in the blanks

1.       Primary                2. Modern period            3.  Ottoman Turks            4. Beliefs              5. Rationalism

II.                   True / false

1.       True       2.  True                 3. True                  4. False                                 5. False

III.                 Match the following.

1.       C             2. D        3. A        4. E         5. B

IV.                Answer briefly

1.       Primary sources   are the original document or other material that has not been changed in any way. It includes official records, buildings, artefacts, photographs, coins, diaries,  letters, autobiographies, newspapers, maps and documents. It also includes literary works and archaeological remains from the period being studied.

2.        Humanism is a philosophical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings individually and collectively.    In the Medieval Period, everything revolved around religion. However the Renaissance thinkers believed that human life in this world was of great importance. The focus of humanism is humans and the human life.

3.       Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo were two great artists in the Renaissance Period.  Pieta and David were two great sculptures of the Renaissance period.

4.       Martin Luther, a professor of Theology at the University of Wittenberg, was a German monk. He was against the sale of indulgences by the church. As a sign of protest, he nailed his 95 Theses on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, Germany.

5.       Trade with Asia was extremely profitable for the Europeans. The spices and textiles of Asia were very valuable to the Europeans. The fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks closed the land routes between Europe and Asia.  An alternative route to Asia had to be discovered and this led to a race amongst the European nations.

6.       The discovery of gunpowder broke the hold of the feudal lords on the peasants and the common people. Now their forts were no longer impenetrable. This led to the rise of the modern nation states.

V.                  Answer in detail.

1.       Following are some of the hallmarks of the Modern Period.

·         Growth of democratic institutions

·         Industrialisation

·         Urbanisation, trade and colonisation

·         Growth of scientific temper

·         Questioning established religious traditions

·         Rationalism

·         Humanism

2.       One of the main reasons for the development of scientific spirit of enquiry was the rise of literacy. People learned to read and write not only Latin but other vernacular languages too. This was the time which saw the emergence of the great universities of Oxford, Cambridge and Naples. The spread of knowledge created a new kind of thinking. The invention of printing press played a pivotal role which made books available to the people who could read. This increased the desire for knowledge and the development of scientific spirit of enquiry.

3.       Following are the features of the Renaissance.


·         An important feature of the renaissance was the rise of literacy.

·         People started reading books written by scholars and began to ask questions and evaluate the values and norms that were followed by the church.

·           People refused to accept anything blindly, even the authority of the church.

·         The works of notable Italian writers led to an increase in people’s desire to gain knowledge.

·         Renaissance led to the new ideology of humanism in which human’s life is the centre of focus.

·         The true spirit of the renaissance was represented  in the works of artists like Leonardo Da Vinci,  Michelangelo,

·         It also led to the advancement of science and  astronomy.

4.       The print revolution made a major impact on Renaissance. The invention of printing press played a pivotal role which made books available to the people who could read. Till then books were not accessible to the masses as they were handwritten and hence expensive. Books such as the Bible, Latin and Greek classics, legal handbooks, and books on philosophy were printed. People started reading books written by scholars and began to ask questions and evaluate the values and norms that were followed by the church. This increased the desire for knowledge and the development of scientific spirit of enquiry.

5.       Trade with Asia was extremely profitable for the Europeans. The spices and textiles of Asia were very valuable to the Europeans. So they sent voyages to new and distant lands for exploration. The invention of the compass, astrolabe, improved maps and construction of large ships helped the navigators to explore unknown seas and the countries beyond Europe. With the new discoveries, European countries were able to know more about the lands in the Far East and their rich natural resources and they established their colonies there. This was an important step towards the beginning of the modern Period.

6.       Impact of the Reformation are the following.

·         Reformation had a lasting impact on social, religious and political fields of Europe.

·         After Reformation the king or government ruled the state.

·         The reformation carried forward the spirit of scientific enquiry.

·         It brought about the true spirit of individual liberty.

·         It asserted the sovereignty and independence of a nation

·         The Reformation led to the rise of nation states with all powers in the hands of the king.   

Class 8 Hindi

Class 8 Punjabi.




Lesson : 3 Footloose in Agra

Start Here

1.     Lincoln Memorial 2. Parthenon 3. Pietà

Intext questions

1.     Why do you think the rikshaw-man’s ‘curses’ changed to ‘carefree song’?

The rikshaw-man had to face insults from tonga-drivers, pedestrians and other cyclists while passing through the crowed bazaars.  This difficult situation might have forced him to curse initially.  But the ride through the broad Taj Road was very comfortable  and his curses turned into carefree song because of the atmosphere there.

2.     Why did the narrator ask if there was an ongoing festival?

The narrator noticed a large number of bright paper kites  flutter, dip and swerve in the cloudless sky.  Since the narrator could not recall any such sight before, he enquired the rikshaw-man whether that day had any festival.

3.     We have all heard of the Taj Mahal, if not seen it.  Why do you think it is so famous?

Taj Mahal is so famous because of its perfect arrangement of white marble, precious stones such as jade, jasper, lapis lazuli etc. 

4.     Why do you think that the peacock does not fly away when the narrator walks by?

It seems that the peacock lives in the garden surrounding the Taj Mahal.  Since large number of people visit there daily, the peacock is accustomed with the people and stay there without any fear.

5.     Do you agree with the boy’s reasons for finding the Taj interesting every day?  Why/ Why not?

I certainly agree with the boy’s views.  Though Taj Mahal remains the same, the people visits there are different.  People from all over the world, whether they are poor or rich visit there.  Kings, Queens, Presidents, Prime Ministers, film stars and so on visit Taj.  Most recently American President Donald Trump visited the Taj Mahal accompanied by Indian Prime Minister.


1. a. cycle rickshaw b. kites c. kite flying competitions d. jade, jasper and lapis lazuli e. dazzling, marble f. grove, small green fruit g. head gardener, people, Taj Mahal h. mirror for the sun

2. a. iii b. ii

3. c

Reference to context

4. a. The rickshaw man made this observation.

b. The life in Agra is more relaxed and slower than the life in Delhi and gives people more time to indulge in leisure and recreation.

c. The narrator is excited because he has never seen so many kites in the sky in his entire life. The rickshaw man is indifferent because he sees it every day and is no longer amused by it.

5. a. The speaker is qualified to make this judgement because he ferries passengers to and from Taj Mahal every day for a living and knows the best days to visit the Taj Mahal.

b. The fact that it wasn’t a Sunday or a holiday could mean that the Taj Mahal could be less crowded and could give the narrator a better opportunity to see it properly without getting disturbed by others.

c. Yes, the listener does accept the advice of the rickshaw man.

Reflect and answer

6.  I think, the writer was interested in the river Yamuna and the boy in the garden. I think so because at the end of the story, the writer has written, “A few months later, when I try to recapture the essence of that day, it is not the monument that I remember most vividly. The Taj is there, of course; I still see it as a mirror for the sun. But what remains with me, more than anything else, is the passage of the river and the sharp flavour of the Ashoka fruit.”

7. The gardener’s son had lived near the Taj from when he was very young so it didn’t interest very much. As he said in the story, “If you see it once, or a hundred times, it is the same. It doesn’t change.” He preferred looking at the people who came to visit the Taj because they were always different and the boy found them more interesting than the monument itself.

8.  Yes, I prefer to read up about a place before visiting it. Reading about a place before visiting it gives me a detailed information and the history of the place and allows me to enjoy it with a better understanding.

The Big Picture 

The cycle rickshaw was first invented in 1880s. The exact country of origin is unknown but it is believed that it was invented in Japan first. It was invented to ferry people from one place to another in an easier manner than pulled rickshaws. Cycle rickshaws are also known as pedicab (UK, USA and Canada), velotaxi (Germany), beca (Malaysia), trisikad (Philippines). They are used mainly in Asian countries, Northern America and Mexico, many countries in Europe, and in Australia and New Zealand too. The reason we don’t see hand-pulled rickshaws anymore is that the cycle rickshaw is a faster, more efficient mode of transport than the hand-pulled rickshaw, and it is also more humane for the people who operate them.

Work with Words

1. Triangle          2. Comfortable        3. Autobiography               4. Kindly

5. Foresee          6. Misfortune          7. Magical                             8. Thoughtless

Class 8 Hindi

Class 8 Punjabi.



Chapter : 2

Introduction to Java programming

JAVA was developed by Sun Microsystems Inc in 1991, later acquired by Oracle Corporation. It was developed by James Gosling and Patrick Naughton. It is a simple programming language.  Writing, compiling and debugging a program is easy in java.  It helps to create modular programs and reusable code.

Java terminology

Before we start learning Java, let us get familiar with common java terms.

Java Virtual Machine (JVM)

This is generally referred as JVM. Before, we discuss about JVM lets see the phases of program execution. Phases are as follows: we write the program, then we compile the program and at last we run the program.

1)    Writing of the program is of course done by java programmer like you and me.

2)     Compilation of program is done by javac compiler, javac is the primary java compiler included in java development kit (JDK). It takes java program as input and generates java bytecode as output.

3)    In third phase, JVM executes the bytecode generated by compiler. This is called program run phase.

So, now that we understood that the primary function of JVM is to execute the bytecode produced by compiler. Each operating system has different JVM, however the output they produce after execution of bytecode is same across all operating systems. That is why we call java as platform independent language.

As discussed above, javac compiler of JDK compiles the java source code into bytecode so that it can be executed by JVM. The bytecode is saved in a .class file by compiler.

Java Development Kit(JDK)

While explaining JVM and bytecode, I have used the term JDK. Let’s discuss about it. As the name suggests this is complete java development kit that includes JRE (Java Runtime Environment), compilers and various tools like JavaDoc, Java debugger etc.
In order to create, compile and run Java program you would need JDK installed on your computer.

Java Runtime Environment(JRE)

JRE is a part of JDK which means that JDK includes JRE. When you have JRE installed on your system, you can run a java program however you won’t be able to compile it. JRE includes JVM, browser plugins and applets support. When you only need to run a java program on your computer, you would only need JRE.

Main Features of JAVA

Java is a platform independent language

Compiler(javac) converts source code (.java file) to the byte code(.class file). JVM executes the bytecode produced by compiler. This byte code can run on any platform such as Windows, Linux, Mac OS etc. Which means a program that is compiled on windows can run on Linux and vice-versa. Each operating system has different JVM, however the output they produce after execution of bytecode is same across all operating systems. That is why we call java as platform independent language.

Java is an Object Oriented language

Object oriented programming is a way of organizing programs as collection of objects, each of which represents an instance of a class.

4 main concepts of Object Oriented programming are:

1.     Abstraction

2.     Encapsulation

3.     Inheritance

4.     Polymorphism


Java is considered as one of simple language because it does not have complex features like Operator overloading, Multiple inheritance, pointers and Explicit memory allocation.

Robust Language

Robust means reliable. Java programming language is developed in a way that puts a lot of emphasis on early checking for possible errors, that’s why java compiler is able to detect errors that are not easy to detect in other programming languages. The main features of java that makes it robust are garbage collection, Exception Handling and memory allocation.


We don’t have pointers and we cannot access out of bound arrays in java. That’s why several security flaws like stack corruption or buffer overflow is impossible to exploit in Java.

Java is distributed

Using java programming language we can create distributed applications. RMI(Remote Method Invocation) and EJB(Enterprise Java Beans) are used for creating distributed applications in java. In simple words: The java programs can be distributed on more than one systems that are connected to each other using internet connection. Objects on one JVM (java virtual machine) can execute procedures on a remote JVM.


Java supports multithreading which is a Java feature that allows concurrent execution of two or more parts of a program for maximum utilisation of CPU.


As discussed above, java code that is written on one machine can run on another machine. The platform independent byte code can be carried to any platform for execution that makes java code portable.



(Students are requested to write these notes neatly in the computer notebook, read and make maximum number of questions of all types such as fill in the blanks, name, full forms, explain, what is…. and so on)


A memory is just like a human brain. It is used to store data and instructions. Computer memory is the storage space in the computer, where data is to be processed and instructions required for processing are stored. The memory is divided into large number of small parts called cells. Each location or cell has a unique address, which varies from zero to memory size minus one. For example, if the computer has 64k words, then this memory unit has 64 * 1024 = 65536 memory locations. The address of these locations varies from 0 to 65535.

Memory is primarily of three types −

  • Cache Memory  (It is pronounced as cash memory)
  • Primary Memory/Main Memory
  • Secondary Memory

Cache Memory

Cache memory is a very high speed semiconductor memory which can speed up the CPU. It acts as a buffer between the CPU and the main memory. It is used to hold those parts of data and program which are most frequently used by the CPU. The parts of data and programs are transferred from the disk to cache memory by the operating system, from where the CPU can access them.


The advantages of cache memory are as follows −

  • Cache memory is faster than main memory.
  • It consumes less access time as compared to main memory.
  • It stores the program that can be executed within a short period of time.
  • It stores data for temporary use.


The disadvantages of cache memory are as follows −

  • Cache memory has limited capacity.
  • It is very expensive.

Primary Memory (Main Memory)

Primary memory holds only those data and instructions on which the computer is currently working. It has a limited capacity and data is lost when power is switched off. It is generally made up of semiconductor device. These memories are not as fast as registers. The data and instruction required to be processed resides in the main memory. It is divided into two subcategories RAM and ROM.

Primary Memory

Characteristics of Main Memory

  • These are semiconductor memories.
  • It is known as the main memory.
  • Usually volatile memory.
  • Data is lost in case power is switched off.
  • It is the working memory of the computer.
  • Faster than secondary memories.
  • A computer cannot run without the primary memory.

Secondary Memory

This type of memory is also known as external memory or non-volatile. It is slower than the main memory. These are used for storing data/information permanently. CPU directly does not access these memories, instead they are accessed via input-output routines. The contents of secondary memories are first transferred to the main memory, and then the CPU can access it. For example, disk, CD-ROM, DVD, etc.

Secondar Memory

Characteristics of Secondary Memory

  • These are magnetic and optical memories.
  • It is known as the backup memory.
  • It is a non-volatile memory.
  • Data is permanently stored even if power is switched off.
  • It is used for storage of data in a computer.
  • Computer may run without the secondary memory.
  • Slower than primary memories.



RAM (Random Access Memory) is the internal memory of the CPU for storing data, program, and program result. It is a read/write memory which stores data until the machine is working. As soon as the machine is switched off, data is erased.

Primary Memory

Access time in RAM is independent of the address, that is, each storage location inside the memory is as easy to reach as other locations and takes the same amount of time. Data in the RAM can be accessed randomly but it is very expensive.

RAM is volatile, i.e. data stored in it is lost when we switch off the computer or if there is a power failure. Hence, a backup Uninterruptible Power System (UPS) is often used with computers. RAM is small, both in terms of its physical size and in the amount of data it can hold.

RAM is of two types −

  • Static RAM (SRAM)
  • Dynamic RAM (DRAM)

Static RAM (SRAM)

The word static indicates that the memory retains its contents as long as power is being supplied. However, data is lost when the power gets down due to volatile nature. SRAM chips use a matrix of 6-transistors and no capacitors. Transistors do not require power to prevent leakage, so SRAM need not be refreshed on a regular basis.

There is extra space in the matrix, hence SRAM uses more chips than DRAM for the same amount of storage space, making the manufacturing costs higher. SRAM is thus used as cache memory and has very fast access.

Characteristic of Static RAM

  • Long life
  • No need to refresh
  • Faster
  • Used as cache memory
  • Large size
  • Expensive
  • High power consumption

Dynamic RAM (DRAM)

DRAM, unlike SRAM, must be continually refreshed in order to maintain the data. This is done by placing the memory on a refresh circuit that rewrites the data several hundred times per second. DRAM is used for most system memory as it is cheap and small. All DRAMs are made up of memory cells, which are composed of one capacitor and one transistor.

Characteristics of Dynamic RAM

  • Short data lifetime
  • Needs to be refreshed continuously
  • Slower as compared to SRAM
  • Used as RAM
  • Smaller in size
  • Less expensive
  • Less power consumption

Read Only Memory

ROM stands for Read Only Memory. The memory from which we can only read but cannot write on it. This type of memory is non-volatile. The information is stored permanently in such memories during manufacture. A ROM stores such instructions that are required to start a computer. This operation is referred to as bootstrap. ROM chips are not only used in the computer but also in other electronic items like washing machine and microwave oven.


Let us now discuss the various types of ROMs and their characteristics.

MROM (Masked ROM)

The very first ROMs were hard-wired devices that contained a pre-programmed set of data or instructions. These kind of ROMs are known as masked ROMs, which are inexpensive.

PROM (Programmable Read Only Memory)

PROM is read-only memory that can be modified only once by a user. The user buys a blank PROM and enters the desired contents using a PROM program. Inside the PROM chip, there are small fuses which are burnt open during programming. It can be programmed only once and is not erasable.

EPROM (Erasable and Programmable Read Only Memory)

EPROM can be erased by exposing it to ultra-violet light for a duration of up to 40 minutes. Usually, an EPROM eraser achieves this function. During programming, an electrical charge is trapped in an insulated gate region. The charge is retained for more than 10 years because the charge has no leakage path. For erasing this charge, ultra-violet light is passed through a quartz crystal window (lid). This exposure to ultra-violet light dissipates the charge. During normal use, the quartz lid is sealed with a sticker.

EEPROM (Electrically Erasable and Programmable Read Only Memory)

EEPROM is programmed and erased electrically. It can be erased and reprogrammed about ten thousand times. Both erasing and programming take about 4 to 10 ms (millisecond). In EEPROM, any location can be selectively erased and programmed. EEPROMs can be erased one byte at a time, rather than erasing the entire chip. Hence, the process of reprogramming is flexible but slow.

Advantages of ROM

The advantages of ROM are as follows −

  • Non-volatile in nature
  • Cannot be accidentally changed
  • Easy to test
  • More reliable than RAMs
  • Static and do not require refreshing
  • Contents are always known and can be verified



Lesson 2 : My Home Environment

Note down word meanings from the text book and learn

Intext questions (You can form your own answers also)

1.     What do you think about Tagore’s cousin Gunendra?

Tagore’s cousin Gunendra was a man with new ideas of festivity or frolic (joyous), theatricals or other entertainments.  From the description, we can understand that Gunendra possessed a large, gracious heart that gave due place to relatives, friends, guests and dependants.

2.     How do you feel when you hear about the achievement of a friend?

I would certainly be happy when I hear about the achievement of my friend.  I would congratulate him/her and inform everybody in my contact about it and encourage him/her for future success.

3.     Why do you think there is this difference in the social life then and now?

The socio-economic system was totally different when Tagore was young.  People cared for each other and that’s why they wanted to share their joys and sorrows with each other.   But nowadays, everyone is so busy that people do not meet each other to spend time or share things with each other anymore.

Read and Answer

Ex.1,2,3 & 4 : Read the lesson carefully and solve yourself.

Reference to context

5. a. The author did not get the prize for doing well in some examination.

b. The author got the respect of his cousin because of his trait of being happy for his nephew’s success.

c. Getting rewarded in this manner did not help the author because it made the author feel self-conscious.

Reflect and answer

6. The author called it an advantage because it gave the author a culturally rich environment and taught him to be inclined towards literature from the time that he was a little boy. Being raised in that environment gave the author a chance to start writing at an early age. The author’s cousins were writers themselves and gave their feedback to the author about his writings, and as we know, Rabindranath Tagore went on to become a highly skilled and prolific writer and poet whose works are still remembered and taught years after his death.

7. The line means that in the olden days, people used to meet each other to talk to each other and spend time with each other. The meetings were not limited to just political or professional gains. People cared for each other and that’s why they wanted to share their joys and sorrows with each other. Yes, I agree with the author here. Nowadays, everyone is so busy that people do not meet each other to spend time or share things with each other anymore. Most of the meetings have some purpose or another behind them.

8. (You can write your own.  The given one is just a model)

I have often been praised for having a good sense of humour. I like to make people laugh by cracking jokes. This trait comes from my father. I have always seen him happy and making people laugh for as long as I can remember. I picked up this trait very early in life and it still remains with me.

The Big Picture

Mujlis in today’s day and age might refer to the living room in houses where guests are entertained. Certainly, it has changed from the author’s time because most people now do not have the luxury of big houses. Additionally, the culture of entertaining guests on a very large scale has changed.

Synonym for mujlis in my mother tongue is baithak.

Work with Words

a.  A device used by dentists, the procedure of doing something

b.  As Siberia is extremely cold, it meant, ‘The office is freezing today’.

Metaphor – an indirect comparison – His words are pearls of wisdom.

Simile – a comparison using ‘like’ and ‘as’ – The assignment kept them as busy as bees.

Pun – having words with multiple meanings – The horse is a stable animal.

Irony – having words with contrasting meanings – Oh great! I spilled coffee on my new dress.

Personification – giving human attributes – The wind rushed in through the open window.

Hyperbole – an exaggeration – A million chores awaited Gita at home.



OXFORD ROOTS – CLASS – 8 (Lesson – 1)

Intext questions

1.     Why do you think the lady offers her name and address to the conductor?

It seems that the lady was also well aware of the rules and regulations.  As per law violators are to be booked under the provisions of the law.  The lady might have offered her name and address for this purpose.

2.     In this situation, what does the ‘gesture of terrible things’ imply?

The ‘gesture of terrible things’ imply a kind a threatening by way of legal actions  against the conductor by a fellow passenger.

3.     Why do you think the conductor wanted to ‘justify himself to somebody’?

The sympathy shown by co-passengers to the sealskin lady, while the conductor was implementing  rules might have caused him a prick of conscience.  Though he had won his victory, he was trying to justify it saying he had implemented his rules.


 1.  The narrator thinks of the conductor as a man with a general vague grievance against everything, and particularly against passengers who come and sit in his bus while he shivers at the door. The narrator compares the conductor to a fictional character of a resentful employee from one of the stories written by the famous writer H. G. Wells.

2.  According to the conductor, dogs are not allowed at the lower deck of the bus as it creates discomfort to other passengers. The passengers found the conductor insensitive and unreasonable. Some of the passengers got off and left while some decided to support the woman with the dog. In the end, the woman with the dog gave up and went to the upper deck of the bus.

4. a. The narrator is the ‘I’ in the given line.

 b. Trouble was brewing between the conductor and the young woman with the dog.

 c. The narrator saw trouble coming because the conductor seemed like a man who had a grievance against everything in general and was looking for opportunities to make himself feel superior.

5. a. The speaker said so when the other bus didn’t stop for the passengers despite them shouting for it to stop. 

b. The drivers and conductors of the bus that didn’t stop are being called ‘villains’ here.

c.  I think, the speaker was justified to use the word ‘villain’ here as the other bus driver showed no sympathy for the passengers of this bus despite them shouting for it to stop.

6. a. The driver of the bus asked this question. 

b.  The speaker asked this question because one of the passengers rang the bell violently.  

c. The speaker received no response from the passengers.

Reflect and answer

7. This can be confirmed by the conversation the narrator has with the conductor at the end of the story where the narrator tells the conductor the importance of rules and how they are meant to be observed in the spirit of good-will and good temper.

8. The conductor’s soul was embittered because he took pleasure by causing discomfort to the passengers. It may be because of the reason that he was jealous of the passengers coming and sitting in the bus while he shivered in the cold standing at the door of the bus.

9.  Yes, I agree with this statement made by the narrator. The rules are made to make people’s lives comfortable and not the other way round. Some, like the rules of road, must be strictly followed as they can endanger someone’s life, but some of rules should be implemented in good-will and good temper without causing discomfort to others.



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